The Importance of Cross-Cultural Studies for Managers

 The Importance of Cross-Cultural Studies for Managers Essay

Monash College or university English Dialect CenterВ

The english language Language Bridging Program Diploma or degree 2В

Study EssayВ

" Evaluate The Importance of Cross-Cultural Research for Managers” В

Scholar В: Galih Ardisatria

Student ID В: 23006773

TeachersВ: Jonathan Steven

Date of submission: В 27 Sept 2010 В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В В Word CountВ В В В В В В В В: 1394

In the twenty-first century, globalization promotes people to conduct business across countries and this brings about global marketplaces, which take away boundaries for people to do business. Because of this people coming from different social backgrounds across the world now communicate. People today also have more opportunities to work in international groups. Therefore , corporations have to deal with members of national cultures, including their staff, customers, and business partners. Today's managers are facing modern supervision demands because their work become increasingly more tough (Walker, Master & Schmitz 2003). In this instance, it creates major awareness within the need of cross-cultural studies as a vital skill for managers. Exactly what are cross-cultural studies? Brislin (1976) defines these people as ‘Empirical investigations, which in turn compare teams who have got different experiences that have generated predictable and significant variations in behavior. ' On the other hand, Hofstede (1984, as cited in Dwyer, 2002) argues that culture can be " the collective development of the mind which differentiates the people of one human group from another”. By these definitions, I understand that culture is definitely learned and shared by groups of people, and it makes principles and standards of actions, which bring people with each other. Culture influences people brains and behaviors. As Usunier (1998) states, ‘Culture may very well be as behavior. ' These social morals are different from one and one more and that makes culture various. The selection of lifestyle generates social differences, which usually distinguish societies in the world. From this essay, Let me discuss a defieicency of cross-cultural research in reference to managers and how it helps managers to perform well in the international organization environment in three elements. The 1st aspect is usually communicating across culture. Speaking of communicating, Dwyer (2002) describes communication as ‘Any tendencies, verbal, non-verbal or visual that is perceived by an additional. ' Data, ideas or knowledge transmitted are in three several forms, which can be verbal (spoken words), nonverbal (body movements, intonation) and graphic (signs, visual). And cross-cultural connection ‘highlights similarities and differences across traditions groups to market communication. ' Since lifestyle is distributed by sets of people, language is one of the techniques people communicate their behaviour and local perspectives to others. Kramsch (1995, while cited in Kivik, 1998) states that ‘Culture inside the final analysis is actually linguistically mediated membership in to the discourse community. ' (p. 70). Managers can discover how local people behave and believe by learning the local terminology, which can help them to be familiar with the local environment. Nevertheless, due to cultural variations, miscommunication may happen frequently. Miscommunication is a cracked message of communication (Kushal 2009). Managers might find it hard to express and understand tips, thoughts, or feelings that are shared, just because a different culture may mean a different dialect. For instance, Western people have several understandings from the word " yes". Relating to worldwide trade supervision, Japan foreign trade information centre (1994), to prevent any kind of conflict, Japanese persons use the phrase " yes" to show that they understand what is being said, and not to show that they can actually agree with the audio. However , very good language...

References: Brislin, Richard W. (2010, September 4). Comparative study methodology: Cross-cultural studies. Foreign journal of psychology, 11(3), 215-229. Retrieved from

Dwyer, T

Hendon, Jesse W., Hendon, Rebecca A. & Herbig, P. (1996). Cross-cultural business negotiations. USA: Green Real wood Publishing Group.

International Transact administration, The japanese export details center. (1994). Destination The japanese: A business guidebook for the 90's. (2nd ed). Springfield: NTIS

Kivik, P

Kushal, Sri M. (2009). Business communication. New Delhi: VK Enterprises.

Lewis, Richard M. (1999). The moment cultures wage war: Managing successfully across nationalities. Finland: WS Bookwell.

Marx, E. (2001). Breaking through culture surprise: what you need to flourish in international organization. Finland: Nicholas Prealey Submitting.

Mead, L (2005). Worldwide management: Cross-cultural dimensions. (3rd ed). UK: Blackwell Publishing.

Steers, Richard M., Shancez-Runde, Carlos M. & Nardon, L. (2010). Management across cultures: Problems and tactics. USA: Cambridge University Press.

Usunier, L. (1998). International & cross-cultural management study. London: Sage Publication.

Master, D., Master, T. & Schmitz, M. (2003). Conducting business internationally. (2nd ed). New york city: McGraw-Hill

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